This page includes resources for archaeological network research including bibliographies, tutorials and workshops, downloadable datasets, and a list of publications with data and analytical code. For the online companion and tutorials associated with the Network Science in Archaeology book check here.

If you have new resources to add here email with the subject line "archnetwork resources"


Archaeological Network Bibliographies

  Zotero bibliography of archaeological network publications
Bibliography compiled by Brughmans and Peeples (expanded from 2017 article in Journal of Historical Network Research).

 Zotero bibliography of historical network publications
Bibliography of network publications using historical data currently maintained by the historical network research group.

 Zotero bibliography from Archaeological Network Science book
Bibliography of cited literature in Brughmans and Peeples (2023).


Archaeological Network Tutorials and Teaching Resources

  Network Methods and Models in Archaeology, Course Syllabus (Matt Peeples)
Course syllabus for graduate course taught at Arizona State University by Matt Peeples in Fall 2022. Includes an extensive reading list of archaeological network literature. Additional materials and assignments available below:

Lab Assignment 1
Lab Assignment 2
Lab Assignment 3
Lab Assignment 4
Network Data Write-up Example

 Network tutorials and resources - Archaeological Networks Blog (Tom Brughmans)
Tutorials useful tutorials for various network software packages including Visone, The Vistorian, Netlogo, and Cytoscape compiled by Tom Brughmans.

 A brief introduction to networks in R (Matt Peeples)
R Markdown document associated with the workshop at the “Big Data in Archaeology” conference hosted by the McDonald Institute of Archaeological Research in Cambridge, UK (March 2019). This tutorial provides a basic introduction to network data and analysis using R.

 Network science and statistical techniques for dealing with uncertainties in archaeological datasets (Matt Peeples)
R Markdown document associated with the workshop at the Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology Meeting in Atlanta, GA (2017) hosted by Matt Peeples and Tom Brughmans. Network Science and Statistical Techniques for Dealing with Uncertainties in Archaeological Datasets. This tutorial provides a detailed overview of a set of related Monte Carlo methods for assessing variability and uncertainty in many common kinds of archaeological network data. Many of the methods in this tutorial are now updated and reworked in the Online Companion to Brughmans and Peeples (2023)

  A guide to good practice for archaeological network science - YouTube Video (Tom Brughmans)
A brief overview of network science techniques, theories, and visualization strategies.

  Network Archaeology Tutorial for Python (Andrew Cabaniss)
A tutorial for network theory in archaeology in Python.


Archaeological Network Datasets

The resources below represent published archaeological network datasets and associated code and figures. The data have been divided by data class: material culture network data, bibliographic network data, spatial network data, and other network data.

Material culture network data

 Archaeological SNA R Demo (Dean Arcega and Timothy Vitales)
Dean Anthony Arcega & Timothy James Vitales, (2021). A quick demo of archaeological social network analysis in R. Repository includes affiliation network based on foreign tradeware classes and sites along Laguna de Bay and Pasig River, Philippines.

 Ceramic Dashboard (Andy Upton)
R dashboard providing data and code for exploratory data analysis and network analysis for ceramic data from the Late Prehistoric Central Illinois River Valley.

Bibliographic network data

 Geometric Morphometric Citation Network (Robert Z. Selden, Jr.)
Gephi dataset of publications involving geometric morphometrics in archaeology and an interactive visualization of these data.

 Hyperlink coauthorship data from Wikipedia 'Archaeology' articles (Shawn Graham)
Graham, Shawn (2014): Hyperlink Coauthorship, User-Article Network, from Wikipedia 'Archaeology' article. figshare. Dataset.

 Mapping the structure of the archaeological web (Shawn Graham)
Graham, Shawn (2014): Mapping the Structure of the Archaeological Web. figshare. Dataset.
Network of connections among archaeological blogs and other online resources.

 Texas Archaeology Publications Network Data (Robert Z. Selden, Jr.)
This dataset was harvested from Scopus using the search "Texas AND archaeology." These data were then used to generate a citation network used to explain how the work of Texas archaeologists articulates with one another. Data in .csv format.

Spatial network data

 Minoan Archaeological Sites (Tim Evans)
These are the 39 sites and distance between them used in a series of papers by T.S.Evans, C.Knappett and R.J.Rivers. They represent major centers in the Middle Bronze age of the Aegean (era of Minoan civilization).  Information on these excel files and on some of the papers using this data is contained in a pdf or can be found following the links provided. I also provide figures showing the location of these sites along with a QGIS project file used to create the figures.

Other network data

 Central Andes Foodweb data (Cassandra Scaffidi)
Scaffidi, Cassandra (2021): Foodweb_Central_Andes_9_10_2021.xlsx. figshare. Dataset.

 Dendrochronological Provenance Networks (R. Visser)
Visser, R.M., 2021. Dendrochronological Provenance Patterns. Network Analysis of Tree-Ring Material Reveals Spatial and Economic Relations of Roman Timber in the Continental North-Western Provinces. Journal of Computer Applications in Archaeology, 4(1), pp.230–253. DOI:

 Hodder's 'Entangled' as network (Shawn Graham)
Graham, Shawn (2013): Hodder's Figure 9.2, Entangled, as network. figshare. Dataset.
Gephi data representing Hodder's 'tanglegram' (his Figure 9.2) as a mixed network (directed and undirected links). Other attributes could be added.


Archaeological Network Publications with Data and/or Code

 Ducke, B. & Suchowska, P. (2021). Exploratory Network Reconstruction with Sparse Archaeological Data and XTENT. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory.
 GRASS GIS Code on GitHub

 Borck, L., Mills, B. J., Peeples, M. A., & Clark, J. J. (2015). Are Social Networks Survival Networks? An Example from the Late Pre-Hispanic US Southwest. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 22(1), 33–57.
 R Code on GitHub

 Brughmans, T., Bobou, O., Kristensen, N. B., Thomsen, R. R., Jensen, J. V., Seland, E. H., & Raja, R. (2021). A kinship network analysis of Palmyrene genealogies. Journal of Historical Network Research, 6(1).
 Data in supplementary materials

 Brughmans, T., & Poblome, J. (2016). MERCURY: an agent-based model of tableware trade in the Roman East. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 19(1),
 NetLogo Model on CoMSES net

 Buchanan, B., Andrews, B., Kilby, J. D., & Eren, M. I. (2019). Settling into the country: Comparison of Clovis and Folsom lithic networks in western North America shows increasing redundancy of toolstone use. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 53, 32–42.
 Data in supplementary materials

 Buchanan, B., Hamilton, M. J., & David Kilby, J. (2019). The small-world topology of Clovis lithic networks. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, 3537–3548.
 Data in supplementary materials

 Buchanan, B., Hamilton, M. J., Hartley, J. C., & Kuhn, S. L. (2019). Investigating the scale of prehistoric social networks using culture, language, and point types in western North America. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, 11(1), 199–207.
 Data in supplementary materials

 Buchanan, B., Hamilton, M. J., Kilby, J. D., & Gingerich, J. A. M. (2016). Lithic networks reveal early regionalization in late Pleistocene North America. Journal of Archaeological Science, 65, 114–121.
 Data in supplementary materials

 Gauthier, N. (2021). Hydroclimate Variability Influenced Social Interaction in the Prehistoric American Southwest. Frontiers in Earth Science, 8.
 Data and code in supplementary materials
 Data and code on GitHub

 Giomi, E., & Peeples, M. A. (2019). Network analysis of intrasite material networks and ritual practice at Pueblo Bonito. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 53, 22–31.
 Data and R code on GitHub

 Gjesfjeld, E. (2015). Network Analysis of Archaeological Data from Hunter-Gatherers: Methodological Problems and Potential Solutions. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 22(1), 182–205.
 R Code on personal website

 Gjesfjeld, E., & Phillips, S. C. (2013). Evaluating adaptive network strategies with geochemical sourcing data: a case study from the Kuril Islands. In C. Knappett (Ed.), Network analysis in archaeology. New approaches to regional interaction (pp. 281–306). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
 R Code on personal Website

 Mills, B. J., Clark, J. J., Peeples, M. A., Haas, W. R., Roberts, J. M., Hill, J. B., et al. (2013). Transformation of social networks in the late pre-Hispanic US Southwest. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 1–6.
 Data on GitHub

 Ossa, A. (2013). Using network expectations to identify multiple exchange systems: A case study from Postclassic Sauce and its hinterland in Veracruz, Mexico. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 32(4), 415–432.
 Simulation Java Code in supplementary materials

 Peeples, M. A. (2018). Connected Communities: Networks, Identity, and Social Change in the Ancient Cibola World. University of Arizona Press.
 Data and R Code on tDAR

 Peeples, M. A., & Haas, W. R. (2013). Brokerage and Social Capital in the Prehispanic U.S. Southwest. American Anthropologist, 115(2), 232–247.
 Data and R Code on GitHub

 Peeples, M. A., Mills, B. J., Haas, W. R. Jr., Clark, J. J., & Roberts, J. M. Jr. (2016). Analytical Challenges for the Application of Social Network Analysis in Archaeology. In T. Brughmans, A. Collar, & F. Coward (Eds.), The Connected Past: challenges to network studies in archaeology and history (pp. 59–84). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
 R Code on GitHub

 Peeples, M. A., & Roberts, J. M. (2013). To binarize or not to binarize: relational data and the construction of archaeological networks. Journal of Archaeological Science, 40(7), 3001–3010.
 Data and R Code in supplementary materials

 Visser, R. M. (2021). Dendrochronological Provenance Patterns. Network Analysis of Tree-Ring Material Reveals Spatial and Economic Relations of Roman Timber in the Continental North-Western Provinces. Journal of Computer Applications in Archaeology, 4(1), 230–253.
 Data and R Code on GitHub

 Wang, LY & Marwick, B. (2021). A Bayesian networks approach to infer social changes from burials in northeastern Taiwan during the European colonization period. Journal of Archaeological Science 134:105471.
 Data and R Code on GitHub